Will there be another financial crisis?


    Will there be another financial crisis?

    History shows that there are two things we can be sure of when it comes to financial crises: there will be another one, and the next one won’t be the same as the last.

    That’s a big problem because they can be very damaging…

    A financial crisis causes so much harm because people rely on financial institutions every day: banks provide debit cards so we can pay for things more easily; pension providers help us plan for the future; and insurance companies provide cover in the event that our belongings are damaged, lost or stolen.

    When a crisis hits, the after-effects can be felt for many years after. Looking at various examples throughout history, one estimate places the total economic cost of a typical financial crisis at around 75% of GDP. That’s equivalent to £21,000 for every person in the UK.

    Take the 2007-08 financial crisis, which was one of the most severe ever seen. Some financial markets effectively closed. Others were so badly damaged that businesses and households were unable to get the finance they needed. As a result the UK economy suffered the deepest recession since the Second World War.

    That led to a real impact on wages, jobs and access to credit for people across the country.

    1 million

    Increase in the number of people without jobs


    Fall in wages below 2007 levels

    Lending stopped

    Bank lending ground to a complete halt

    Where will the next financial crisis come from?

    tulips-colourfulHistory tells us there are many different causes of crises – some more bizarre than others.

    For example, in 1636, “tulip mania” took hold in the Netherlands.  As the price of tulip bulbs went up and up, it is said that people spent their life savings to buy them. But this craze came to an abrupt end and the price of tulips crashed, causing huge losses and a slowdown in the Dutch economy.

    No one can say where the next crisis will come from.

    But what we do know is that the next crisis will be different from past crises:  history may rhyme, but it rarely repeats.

    How is the financial world different today?

    The whole way in which the Bank of England looks after the financial system has changed. Another KnowledgeBank guide explains these changes using an analogy of fires and financial crises.

    To reduce the chances of a crisis occurring, it is now the Bank of England’s job to:


    What is stress testing?

    The Bank also carries out “stress tests”.  These involve looking at a range of “what if” scenarios – such as a sudden downturn in economic conditions – and checking that banks would be able to cope.

    There have been other important changes, too.

    In the event that a large commercial bank did go bust today, the Bank of England now has the powers to deal with the situation in an orderly way. Crucially, there would no longer be a need for the UK government to bail-out a failing bank at the expense of taxpayers. We also require banks to prepare for their own failure so we can use our powers as quickly and effectively as possible.

    What does the future have in store?

    The vote to leave the European Union in June 2016 led to a lot of uncertainty surrounding the future of the UK’s trading arrangements.  The Bank of England cut interest rates and announced other measures to increase the amount of spending in the UK economy, which in turn will boost employment and wages.

    The leave vote jolted financial markets but we have made sure that banks now have substantial financial resources to help them weather this and any future storm.

    So the system is much safer today than it was in 2007-08.

    But no one can prevent crises from ever taking place again.

    It is the Bank of England’s role to monitor and assess the risks that are out there and to use the tools it has at its disposal to maintain a stable financial system.

    Find out more:

    This page gives an overview of our role in promoting the stability of the financial system.
    • For further detail on how we monitor and take action to address risks to the system as a whole, see this article or this speech by Alex Brazier, one of the Bank of England’s Executive Directors.


    1. Jerzy Wieczorkiewicz (Canada)
      6th October 2016

      We had ‘oil crisis’ in the 70’s so it can’t be the oil. … I think the next financial crisis is already in the making by Central Banks. Like the old saying goes “we found the enemy it is us”. Not meant to offend anybody at BoE (ECB, Fed, BoJ, BoC) but central banks don’t have authority to make structural changes outside of the banking system that would prevent the next crisis.

    2. Supratik Basu
      11th May 2017

      Mistrust…unequal and non inclusive growth won’t motivate the base of the pyramid to hold the structure anymore…

    3. Dan C
      24th May 2017

      This Knowledge Bank site is excellent – user friendly, down to earth, easy to understand. Thanks to all involved!

      As for the next crisis – my guess is that it will be either be

      1) a result of huge levels of global debt, since debt is increasing faster than the economic output needed to service it. This will likely unfold through a stage of extremely high inflation as everyone attempts to put off the inevitable; OR

      2) it will be political in nature, since policies to date have unfortunately taken no account of the wealth inequality they have created, including that between generations. Once the younger generation realise they have been “sold down the river”, I expect they will be angry, even if it may be the case that policymakers felt they had no choice but to place the burden of the financial crisis only onto them.

      As an aside, I would welcome more material on inflation, as one criticism I hear quite often is that global inflation figures are highly misleading as they are so open to manipulation to be practically useless. If one thinks of house prices in the UK relative to wages, or even many key household staples, one can see what these people are getting at. I would be good to hear the official retort to these criticisms.

    4. Ralph Musgrave
      11th September 2017

      A central element in most financial crises is the simple fact that commercial banks are INHERENTLY fragile as long as they’re allowed to engage in the daft policy of borrowing short and lending long. That policy appears to have an advantage: it creates liquidity / money. However central banks and governments can create and spend whatever amount of money they want into the economy, ergo there is absolutely no need for commercial bank fragility.

      Full reserve banking disposes of that fragility.

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