Interim and end-state minimum requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities (MRELs)

The Bank of England has published UK-headquartered firms’ MRELs.

Overview

For resolution plans to be feasible and credible, UK firms are required to maintain sufficient resources that can absorb losses and provide for recapitalisation in resolution. To achieve this, the Bank of England, as the UK’s resolution authority, requires all banks, building societies and certain investment firms to maintain a minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities (MREL).

This publication contains the 2023 external MRELs for all firms with a resolution entity incorporated in the UK for which an MREL above minimum capital requirements has been communicated. The Bank has updated the format of the disclosure to reflect the fact that as of 1 January 2023 most firms have reached their end-state MRELs and that, in future, firms which become newly subject to a preferred resolution strategy involving the use of stabilisation powers will be subject to the transition arrangements set out in the Bank’s revised Statement of Policy (SoP) on its approach to setting MREL. This year’s disclosure also reflects firm-specific judgements to adjust the MREL for firms with a partial transfer preferred resolution strategy, under paragraph 4.8 of the MREL SoP.

External minimum requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities (MRELs) – 2023

What is MREL? 

The firms in this publication have resolution strategies which involve bail-in or partial transfer, and so must maintain sufficient equity and debt resources that can absorb losses and provide for recapitalisation in resolution.

MREL is the minimum amount of equity and subordinated debt a firm must maintain to support an effective resolution. This is separate to the capital requirements set by the PRA.

For debt or equity to count to MREL, it must meet specific conditions. These conditions ensure we could depend on that equity and debt to support a resolution.

MREL ensures that investors and shareholders – and not the taxpayer – absorb losses when a firm fails. We set MREL to reflect how we would expect to resolve a firm if they failed. The biggest and/or most complex firms have the highest MRELs – reflecting that they would be more disruptive if they failed in a disorderly way.

The Bank of England has published a Statement of Policy setting out its approach to setting MREL.

  • 20 December 2021: The Bank published the interim external MRELs (where relevant) and end state external MRELs for all firms with a resolution entity incorporated in the UK for which an MREL has been communicated above minimum capital requirements.

    28 January 2021: The Bank published for the first time firm-specific interim and end-state MREL disclosures for all UK-headquartered firms with an MREL above minimum capital requirements. Previously, the Bank published individual MRELs only for global and domestic systemically important banks and building societies headquartered in the UK.

This page was last updated 18 April 2023